Lesson 11-2



Exercise 1: Fill in the missing words – write


CountryLanguage / AdjectivePeopleOne person is a
AustraliaAustralianAustralians Australian
AustriaAustrianAustriansAustrian
CanadaCanadiansCanadian
CroatiaCroatianCroats
DenmarkDanishDanes Dane
FinlandFinnish Fin
FrenchFrenchFrench
GermanyGermansGerman
GreeceGreekGreek
HollandDutchDutch Dutch
HungaryHungarianHungariansHungarian
IrelandIrishIrish
ItalianItaliansItalian
PolandPolishPole
RussiaRussianRussiansRussian
ScotlandScottishScots Scot
SpainSpaniardsSpaniard
SwedenSwedishSwedesSwede
The Czech RepublicCzechsCzech
The Slovak Republic
Slovakia
SlovakSlovak
The United Kingdom
Britain
BritsBrit
The United States
America
AmericanAmericansAmerican



World celebrations and festivities


Winter Holidays


Christmas


Australia: Christmas in Australia is in the middle of Summer Holidays. We have a Christmas tree, Santa or Father Christmas brings us presents, and we sing Christmas Carols. Our dinner is usually a barbeque or a picnic, and we eat a special cake named Pavlova. We hang wreaths on our front door and decorate our houses and gardens.

The United Kingdom: Christmas in the UK is on the 25th of December. That day is called the Boxing Day and everyone unwraps presents that Father Christmas brought. But we start on the 24th on the Christmas Eve – we eat Christmas pudding, and we have holly and mistletoe in our houses, and we decorate our Christmas tree.

The United States: We decorate our Christmas trees with coloured lights, angels and stars. Our homes are decorated with holly, mistletoe and branches of trees. We sometimes also decorate our gardens with reindeers and Santas and snowmen, and lots of electric lights. We eat turkey and potatoes and pie on Christmas Eve, which is on the 24th of December, but we unwrap our presents on the 25th.

The Czech Republic: People in the Czech Republic eat carp for dinner. Sometimes children don’t eat anything before dinner and want to see a mysterious golden pig. We decorate the Christmas tree in the morning and unwrap the presents in the evening on the Christmas Eve. The presents are from Baby Jesus, who secretly brings them during our dinner.

France: Most people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December, but some start celebrating on December 6 with the Saint Nicolas’ Day. Some people eat goose or turkey with chestnuts, some people eat oysters. We also eat a traditional Yule-log shaped cake. We decorate our houses with mistletoe and Papa Noel brings us presents. Don’t forget to sing a Christmas Carol with us!

South American countries: Christmas in Bolivia is mostly a harvest festival and a festival of the Goddess Mother Earth. People in Brazil get gifts from Papai Noel. Christ-child brings presents to children in Ecuador and leaves them in their shoes. People shoot firecrackers and dance on the streets. In Chile, Santa Clause comes through the window and brings presents. People eat turkey, salads, seafood or olives, and drink wine for dinner. People in Argentina go to the church, there are many fireworks and people dance on the streets. They also have the Christmas tree on the 24th of December. In Venezuela, the celebrations start on the 16th of December with fireworks and bell ringing. On January 6, children get presents from the King Balthazar that kisses them on the cheek during the night.


Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa is one of the winter holidays, same as Christmas. It is an African-American celebration that lasts from December 26th to January 1st. People celebrate their family, community, culture and traditions. It is also a harvest festival, so you can eat a lot of fruits. Important things are: a candle holder, fruits and vegetables, a special cup, seven different candles (one black, three red, three green) and lots of small gifts.

Hanukkah
Hanukkah is one of the winter holidays, same as Christmas. It is a Jewish holiday that starts every 25th day of the month Kislev (the Jews have their own calendar) and it lasts for eight days. People celebrate a miracle that happened in Jerusalem a long time ago. Important things are: small gifts for children, special toy called dreidel, candle holders called menorah and eight candles for every day of the celebration.

Winter Solstice
People celebrate the shortest day of the year on the 21st of December. There are many traditions that people can keep, such as eating fruits and special rituals. There is another celebration for the spring solstice.

How do you celebrate Christmas?
Or do you celebrate something else?
What traditions do you keep?



Exercise 2: Choose the correct answer


A cracker is –
A menorah is –
A reindeer is –
Kwanzaa candles are –
Winter Solstice celebrates –



Exercise 3: Finish the sentence


King Balthazar visits children in .
What is the name of the special Australian cake? .
Who brings presents to the American children?
Papa Noel brings presents to the .
When do the Canadians unwrap the presents?
When do the Czechs unwrap the presents?



Exercise 4: Letter to Baby Jesus


Look at the pictures and choose the words from the list to complete this letter to Baby Jesus.

horse – sweets – baby - computer game – dollhouse – football – teddy bear – presents – book – necklace – Christmas tree – scarf – skis – cards


Dear Baby Jesus,
Christmas is near and I want to tell you about all the we would like to have in my family. Well, I would like a new and a . My sister would like a but it’s too big for our flat, so how about a ? My brother would like a or some new and my sister would like a . I think my mum would like a and dad a new . Do you like ? I must go now and decorate the and write my to my friends.
Thank you very much,
Lots of love from
Quentin



Exercise 5: A letter to Santa Claus


Finish the letter with these words:
book, mum and dad, want, Thank you, Christmas, chimney, North Pole, milk, great, boy, don’t.

Dear Santa!
is here and I want to ask for a few presents. I am a very good . I a red sports car or a big blue bus. Or both. I also want a to read – Harry Potter would be ! If you have all seven books for me, you can give me just one, I don’t mind. I have cookies and for you when you come. Is it true that you come through the ? And Santa, do you have a home security system at ? We have one, you have to be careful not to set it off when you come! I can ask to turn it off for you.
very much,
Mark



A letter to Father Christmas


Hello Father Christmas!

How are you? I am happy because it’s Christmas.
I think I am a good girl and so I can get a lot of presents from you. What do you think?
I love animals! I would like a dog or a cat, or even a hamster.
My brother is a hockey-player and he would like a hockey stick and a helmet.
Do you like ice-hockey?
I don’t. But he is a good boy and he deserves it.
My mum and dad would like a new car, something big and beautiful.

Thank you for everything you bring us!
Your Amelia


Easter



Australia: We often exchange Easter eggs which are usually made of chocolate. Some have little toys inside. We sometimes have chocolate Easter bilbies – the bilby is a native animal in Australia. The families eat roast lamb, beef or chicken with roasted vegetables like potatoes, carrots and pumpkins.

The United Kingdom: On Good Friday, people eat hot cross buns. The Easter bunny brings us chocolate eggs and there is an egg hunt on Easter Sunday. Children also get money, clothes or chocolate gifts. Some people make Easter baskets with those gifts. In some parts of the country, people perform a special spring dance called the Morris Dance.

France: An interesting thing is that church bells do not ring from Friday to Sunday. Early on the Easter morning children rush into the garden and look for hidden chocolate eggs. We don’t have Easter bunnies, we have Easter fish!

The United States: We have a big Easter egg hunt and people wear Easter bonnets on their heads. Some people even decorate an Easter tree. A lot of people have their weddings on Easter Monday, because it is a lucky day. There are places where people celebrate the Mardi Gras carnival. We eat baked ham, potatoes and vegetables for dinner.

Africa: Our Easter is a social and spiritual event. We celebrate it in local church – the church is decorated with butterflies, flowers and banana trees made from clothes. We eat special food such as roasted rice with meat or chicken.

The Czech Republic: Boys in our country whip girls on their legs and recite an Easter Carol as a tradition. Sometimes they even throw water on the girls. Girls give boys painted eggs or special eggs called “kraslice” as a reward. They sometimes give them some nice ribbon too. I think boys like it more than girls.

Russia: We Russians dye the Easter eggs red. We also bake Easter cakes which we call “kulich” and we eat them with our friends and family. An interesting thing is that we have a different calendar than other countries, so we celebrate Easter on a different day than Western nations.

South America: The celebrations in Brazil start with the Holy Week rituals. People go on procession walks to celebrate Jesus Christ. There is also the famous Rio Carnival in Rio de Janeiro with Samba dancers which you can visit. In Peru, people dress in their best clothes and carry statues of Jesus through the streets. They eat sweets prepared from milk and coconut.

Italy: The Italians celebrate Easter with food called Agnellino – roasted baby lamb with special bread full of coloured Easter egg candies. They also call Easter “La Pasqua” and have many special traditions. One of them is “Scoppio del Carro” – a huge wooden wagon that is pushed by white oxen.

Germany: School children have three weeks holiday around Easter. No one works on Good Friday and many people eat fish. On Easter Sasturday, there is a big bonfire. Parents hide Easter baskets with sweets, eggs and small presents for children.

How do you celebrate Easter?


Do you keep these Easter traditions?
Do you prepare special food for the celebrations?



Exercise 6: Choose the correct answer


Easter eggs –
Easter lamb –
Easter bunny –
Easter basket –
Easter bonnet is –
To dye means –
An egg hunt is –



Exercise 7: Answer


Where can we find the Rio Carnival? In .
Where do people decorate places with butterflies, flowers and banana trees? In .
Where can you find "kraslice"? In .
People in the UK dance the .
What brings Easter presents to children in France? The Easter .
Where do people have an "Eastern calendar"? In .
In what country do children have a long holiday around Easter? In .



Exercise 8: Finish the sentence


It is an animal and it brings eggs in most countries. .
We can dye it and then eat it. An .
People in the UK eat the hot .
Australians have the Easter .
The Russians dye their Easter eggs .
The long celebration in Brazil is called the .



Other celebrations



New Zealand: We celebrate the Waitangi Day on the 6th of February. It is a public holiday where the Maori people and the English people celebrate living together in peace. People go to church or visit public concerts and festivals.

Mexico: The people in Mexico celebrate the Tree Kings Day on the 6th of January. Children put their shoes under the Christmas tree and go to sleep. When they wake up, they have presents in the shoes. People also share a cup of hot chocolate and bread with fruit and tiny toys inside.

The Czech Republic: On December 6, the Czechs celebrate the Saint Nicolas’ Day. They call it Mikuláš. Saint Nicolas visits Earth with an angel and a devil and gives good children some sweets and presents, and to bad children he gives coal. If they are very bad, the devil may take them to hell. The children usually recite a poem or sing a song when they meet Mikuláš.

Valentine’s Day
On February 14, people in love celebrate their relationships. They surprise the other person with presents, they send love cards, they eat sweet cakes. There are many heart-shaped decorations everywhere. Some people like it, some don’t.

Halloween
October 31 belongs to Halloween. There are big parties everywhere, people dress up in costumes and children in costumes go to trick-or-treat. People also watch horror films and listen to scary stories. Everything is decorated with spiders, bats and carved pumpkins. It is celebrated in the USA and Canada.

Saint Patrick’s Day
It is celebrated on the 13th of March in Ireland. People wear green clothes and drink green beer. There are many shamrock decorations and leprechaun statues everywhere. Even other countries started to celebrate it.

New Year
New Year’s Eve is the last day of the year and people all over the world celebrate it. People are with friends and family and they usually have a party. Everyone wants to see the fireworks at midnight, even little children. You can wear a funny hat and use sparklers to celebrate the night.

Thanksgiving Day
Thanksgiving is celebrated in the USA and Canada in October and November. It is a celebration of harvest and people share food with friends and family. People eat roasted turkey and a lot of vegetables.

Note: Many of the celebrations you read about are celebrated in more than one country. We just wanted to show you a few interesting traditions.






Exercise 9: Finish the sentence


Where do people celebrate the Valentine’s Day? All around .
Where do people celebrate the New Year’s Eve? All around .
Where do people typically celebrate the Saint Patrick’s day? In .
Thanksgiving is celebrated in the and .
What colour wear the Irish on the Saint Patrick’s Day? .
On the Thanksgiving Day the people eat roasted .
On Halloween the people wear .
The Tree Kings come on the 6th of .



Exercise 10: Revision


Fill in the gaps. Use: the USA, Britain, Czech

Easter Bunny brings eggs in .
Father Christmas visits children in .
Decorating the Christmas tree is also a tradition.



Exercise 11: Revision – world celebrations


What word is missing? Complete the phrases.

bunny
tree
egg
Year
Valentine’s
Patrick's Day
Waitangi


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